Is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair (functions & structures) and its diseases, It is a specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist is specialist doctor that manages diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin,


The highly collimated beam of a laser can be further focused to a microscopic dot of extremely high energy density. This makes it useful as a cutting and cauterizing instrument, The wavelength peaks of the laser light, pulse durations and how the target skin tissue absorbs this determine the clinical applications of the laser types.


Hair removal

Lasers can be used to remove excessive and cosmetically disabling hair due to hypertrichosis or hirsutism. Laser treatments remove dark hair quickly, and it may take 3 to 6 months before regrowth is evident. Several treatment cycles are required with the spacing between treatments dependent on the body area being treated. Laser treatments are less painful and much quicker than electrolysis

Facial wrinkles, scars, and sun-damaged skin

Facial laser resurfacing uses high-energy, pulsed and scanned lasers.Pulsed CO2 and erbium: YAG lasers have been successful in reducing and removing facial wrinkles, acne scars and sun-damaged skin. High-energy, pulsed, and scanned CO2 laser is generally considered the gold standard against which all other facial rejuvenation systems are compared. Typically a 50% improvement is found in patients receiving CO2 laser treatment.

Keloids and hypertrophic scars

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are difficult to eradicate, and traditional treatments are not always successful. Vaporizing lasers (CO2 and erbium:YAG) have been useful as an alternative to conventional surgery. More recently PDL has been used to improve hypertrophic scars and keloids. This may require multiple treatment sessions or the simultaneous use of intralesional injections to gain good results.

Vascular lesions

Lasers have been used successfully to treat a variety of vascular lesions including superficial vascular malformations (port-wine stains), facial telangiectases, haemangiomas, pyogenic granulomas, Kaposi sarcoma and poikiloderma of Civatte. Lasers that have been used to treat these conditions include argon, APTD, KTP, krypton, copper vapour, copper bromide, pulsed dye lasers and Nd:YAG. Argon (CW) causes a high degree of non-specific thermal injury and scarring and is now largely replaced by yellow-light quasi-CW and pulsed laser therapies.

Pigmented lesions and tattoos

Melanin-specific, high energy, QS laser systems can successfully lighten or eradicate a variety of pigmented lesions. Pigmented lesions that are treatable include freckles and birthmarks including some congenital melanocytic naevi, blue naevi, naevi of Ota/Ito and Becker naevi. The short pulse laser systems effectively treat the lesions by confining their energy to the melanosomes, which are the tiny granules containing melanin inside the pigment cells. The results of laser treatment depend on the depth of the melanin and the color of the lesion and are to some degree unpredictable. Safety precautions will depend on which laser system is used and in what setting.